UDC 904; 908 (470)
The article discusses the key events and milestones in the history of Ussuriisk city, which are interpreted in the overall context of regional processes. When writing the article, the author applied some of the principles of macrohistory and systematic methodology. Two major periods in the history of the area are identified, namely: from the beginning of its development until the death of the Eastern Xia State (1234), and from the founding of Nikol’skoye settlement (1866) up to the present time. The study concluded that, except for the short periods of gaining the status of the capital (1215–1234) and of the oblast’ center (1934–1943), the settlements, the hill-forts, and the city of Ussuriisk remained on the periphery of the main socio-political processes that took place in the region. Moreover, the primary trend of the area’s historical development was interrupted after the Mongol invasion. More southern areas and the formation of the Manchu community turned out to be engaged in the new politogenesis trend. The subsequent Manchurian conquest of China allowed for developing Primorye on a fundamentally different civilizational basis. It was also found that the development of the new Nikol’sk-Ussuriisk town was strongly influenced by its Russia-China border location and the developed, primarily, railroad infrastructure. The article concludes that, despite some problematic events in the history of Ussuriisk, there have been positive changes in the development of the city, which is now an important economic and educational center of Primorsky Krai.
Key words: Ussurijsk, phenomenon, the Bohai state, Jin empire, history, trends, border, Nikol’skoye, Nikol’sk-Ussuriiskiy
UDC 94(47); 94(571)
This article provides information about the history of the «triumphal arch» in Nikol’sk-Ussuriiskiy, which was built in 1891 to honor the visit of Crown Prince Nicholas. In 1896 the arch was rebuilt as a chapel on the occasion of the imperial coronation of Nicholas II. The Arch-Chapel was built in the «Russian» style, which expressed the official ideology of the time, the idea of the primary role of the autocracy in the history and development of Russia. This building follows the Russian architecture tradition of the time along with other monuments — triumphal arches and Orthodox churches built in the «Russian» style. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Arch-Chapel was a monarchical symbol of Nikol’sk-Ussuriiskiy until it was destroyed in the era of the Soviet regime. Now this building is of interest as the image of the old city and a symbol of the historical connection of the Far East with Russian traditions. The article appendix describes the coronation celebrations of 1896 in Nikol’skoye settlement.
Key words: history of Ussuriysk, "Russian" style, monarchy in Russia, triumphal arches, architecture history
The history of Russia’s Far East has always been inextricably linked with the country’s military forces. This huge and generally underdeveloped area demanded the attention of military interests early on. With its direct exposure to unreliable nearby countries and various geopolitical interests, the Far East always outranked Siberia in importance relative to the overall security and protection of Russia and its affiliated states. As a result, military forces took an active interest to ensure the area’s development to provide security for the entire nation. The article highlights the history of military development of Nikolsk-Ussurisky in Primorsky region in 1931–1941. The case of Nikolsk-Ussurisky provides a perfect example of the extreme need of cooperation between Civil and Military Authorities during critical periods of conflict and potential wars. This paper is based on documents and materials researched in several Russian archives (Primorsky Krai State Archive, Russian State Naval Archive, Russian State Archive of Social and Political History).
Key words: Russian Far East, Primorsky region, OKDVA, Nikolsk-Ussuriisky
Russia sees itself and wants to be seen as a great Eurasian power playing a major role in East Asia. The Russian foreign policy has considered proclamation of «New East Policy» that emphasizes effective relation with Asia-Pacific countries. Dealing with the DPRK is perhaps one of the problematical challenges in the Russian foreign policy. Russia emphasizes the need to engage the DPRK neither because this causes any kind of feelings, nor because this country is an important partner for Russia’s advancement in the region, but because that is essential for maintaining security in Northeast Asia. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the process of rewarming of the Russia-DPRK relationship and to present an overview of the Russian Far East cooperation with North Korea. Russia’s «turn to the East» policy has progressed in two related directions — establishment of cooperation with East Asian countries and development of the Russian Far East. The Russian Far East has a chance to be in the right place at the current time of the improvement of Russian-North Korean relations. The paper makes the case on how the Russian Far East is getting more attention from the Russian government to implement Russia’s «turn to the East» policy.
Key words: Russian foreign policy, the Russian Far East, DPRK, Northeast Asia, regional development, cooperation
The article is about the state ideology of South Korea during the First Republic. The author studies the origins of South Korea nationalism of that period and shows the factors which had an impact on it. The author describes interaction between South Korea’s authority and society since Republic of Korea was established in 1948. The article shows the process of searching a balance between traditions and innovations in Korean political thought. The first president of South Korea made an attempt to create an ideology, which could contribute to the society unification. That ideology was supposed to promote the president’s policy and resist North Korean state ideology. The author analyzes this process, finds the origins of the ideas and studies the influence of Rhee Syngman’s ideology on the Korean society and political process.
Key words: South Korean ideology, idea, tradition, state, authority, society, nationalism, national unification, politicization of myth, authoritarianism
Russian and Korean types of nationalism have come a long and difficult way of formation and development, which left an indelible mark on their current state. There are a number of fundamental differences between them, but still they have similar features inherent in any nationalist ideology. In this paper we attempt to compare the main aspects of Russian and Korean nationalism in order to show their differences and similarities. Taking into account a common nature of North and South Korean Nationalism, author supposes a possibility of comparing Russian and Korean nationalism without splitting the last one into two different types. Our study leads to a conclusion that the main difference of Russian and Korean nationalism is related to the different nature of Russian and Korean states: a multiethnic state in Russia and a unitarian state in Korea (though South Korea tends to transform into a multicultural state). Therefore Russian and Korea society understands and regards nationalism in different ways.
Key words: nationalism, Russia nationalism, Korean nationalism, Russia, Republic of Korea, DPRK, slavophilia, westernizer, pan-slavism, pan-asianism, right-wing Korean nationalism, left-wing Korean nationalism
UDC 94 (517)
The article is devoted to the historiographical review of Mongolia’s political history of the first half of the 20th century. By virtue of its spatial position Mongolia was in the center of the geopolitical interests of the world’s leading powers, especially its neighbors, thereby forming a complex triangle of Russia-Mongolia-China international relations. Mongolia became a buffer between Russia and China. On the basis of the Russian and foreign works, the author has tried to show the topical issues of the national liberation movement, the struggle for independence, as well as socio-economic and political development of Mongolia. Currently, due to the declassification of materials in a number of central archives of Russia and Mongolia, a wide range of previously unexplored research materials that shed light on many questions of Russian (Soviet)–Mongolian relations and military cooperation of the period under review have become available. New approaches and interpretations by Russian and Mongolian researchers, highlighting the problems of internal political struggle in Mongolia, the Comintern influence, Barga and Uryankhai issues, Mongolian Revolution and the input of the Red Army in Mongolia in 1921, have been identified.
Key words: Mongolia, Soviet Russia, China, independence, historiography, politics, Comintern, the Mongolian revolution of 1921, geopolitical position
The article studies the system of values and self-assessment of Mongols as the basis of adaptation strategies under the conditions of crisisinduced changes. The most critical periods, during which the need for strengthening the social adaptation strategy arises, are called turbulent. Based on the secondary analysis of comparative social research, an attempt is made to justify the assumption of high adaptation potential of Mongolia’s population. The article provides estimation by such criteria as the level of satisfaction with life, the degree of material support, the prognosis of optimism level, the condition of locus control, and the ability to take responsibility during the crisis periods. Migratory activity, informal types of employment and traditional animal husbandry in the Mongolian society are identified as some means and technologies of adaptation. In the modern Mongolian society, which is permanently experiencing crises of political, social and economic nature, the population is forced to adapt to changes by activization of its adaptation potential.
Key words: social adaptation, system of values, Mongolia, economic crisis, migration, employment, nomadic cattle-breeding
The article analyzes the main tendencies of modernizing change in the traditional economy of Mongolia’s nomads. It aims to expose specific social and economic factors in the changes of the traditional forms of nomadic cattle-breeding of the contemporary Mongolian nomads. Using field research data obtained in the district of the Tov Province of Mongolia, the author highlights the principal contradictions in the development of the nomadic cattle-breeding economy. The study was carried out in four districts (sums/ somons) of the Tov Province of Mongolia: Erdenesant, Sumber, Zhargalant and Bornuur. Shortage of vacant pastures caused by plowing of derelict fields and high density of nomadic farmsteads is the main problem of nomadic cattle herders. Despite the growth of total livestock numbers in the Tov Province, social and economic tensions intensify triggered by the adaptation of the traditional forms of cattle-breeding to market conditions, high density of nomadic farmsteads and competition between crop farming and animal husbandry.
Key words: nomadic pastoralists, nomadic routes, Mongolia, Tov Province, the traditional nomadic economy, modernizatio
The article describes the functioning of a metaphor in the headlines of leading Chinese newspapers: «People’s Daily», «Jinji Daily» (Economic Newspaper), «Tsinnyan Daily» (youth newspaper), «Huanqiu Shibao» (Global Times), as well as «Zhongguo chenshibao» (China Town) and «Shenmin Shibao» (Life). By means of system description, semantic classification of a metaphor reveals its lexemes, and explains the mechanism and ways of creating its expression. The research demonstrates that a metaphor in newspaper headlines generally performs the functions of a journalistic style as well as of its own. Expressing an idea in a concise and vivid form, it characterizes the events, phenomena, and facts described, as well as helps the reader to understand them through cultural connotations of lexemes. The study of metaphors in newspaper headlines allows deepening the awareness of a metaphor as a linguistic phenomenon and as the ability of the human mind to see commonality in different objects.
Key words: metaphor, newspaper headline, semantic classification of metaphors, functions of a metaphor, expression
The article analyses the results of the elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation, the seventh convocation, as compared with the previous parliamentary elections. Prospects of the political leaders for future elections of the President of Russia are estimated. The main outcome of the elections became a convincing victory for the party in power. «United Russia» set a new record for the number of mandates in the State Duma, having regained a constitutional majority and thus having reinforced the one-and-half party system that evolved in Russia at the beginning of the 21st century. This system is otherwise known a system of the dominant party, in which the power is exercised by the strongest party, which holds a special position, and which is ahead of all others in the election obtaining the absolute majority. The opposition is weak and does not play an important role in such systems. The elections were a victory for Vladimir Putin-Dmitry Medvedev tandem. The results reaffirmed that Vladimir Putin remains the leading candidate for victory in the presidential elections of 2018, and Medvedev – in the election of the President of the Russian Federation in 2024.
Key words: Gosduma elections, political parties, United Russia Party, A Just Russia Party, KPRF, LDPR, Vladimir Putin, Dmitry Medvedev