Oriental Institute Journal, 2022, №53 (1)

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DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/11-26


Touristic Researches: Russian case

On October 29th., 2021, the Higher School of Media, Communication and Service, Pacific National University conducted a theoretical workshop under the theme "Touristic Researches: Russian case". The workshop was attended by both PNU colleagues and scholars from other universities and research organizations. The key questions were discussed about Russian touristic researches and tourism development in north territory and Far eastern macro region.

Keywords: tourism, touristic researches, north tourism, tourist flows, Far East, APR


DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/27-37


Folk knowledge of the Chukchi

The article examines the little-studied folk knowledge of the Chukchi. On their basis, the experience of social transformation and the potential of value orientation in traditional culture are summarized. This circumstance is largely explained by the tasks assigned to ethnological science for the study and preservation of functioning, having universal significance, spiritual values formed on the basis of human interaction with a certain habitat. The historical dynamics of anthropogenic life support systems is shown. The vectors of reproductive indicators in the sphere of folk culture are revealed. From the standpoint of the integrative-anthropological approach, the Chukchi folk knowledge shows signs of components of the ethnocultures of Northeast Asia, which is important for solving complex problems of ethnogenesis and ethnic history.

Keywords: Chukchi, knowledge about space and time, knowledge about fauna and flora, folk medicine, Northeast Asia

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/38-47


Kamakura Sculpture in Temples and Museums

Sculptural portraits of Japanese patriarchs and historical figures created in the Kamakura era are carefully preserved in Buddhist temples, and are periodically displayed both in national museums and in foreign galleries. In this period have changed religiously-philosophical, ethical and aesthetic values. The range of depicted images expanded due to new historical figures who devoted themselves to public service. The Kamakura Period was marked by new innovations in sculpture. This article gives an idea not only about the ways of development of the portrait, but also focuses on the new possibilities of its review in museum exhibitions. Round sculpture requires a detour, and this is easily achieved when it is demonstrated in the exhibition space, where it gets a new sound and is filled with additional meaning. In the museum, the audience's perception is formed, sculptures are transformed into art objects that give aesthetic pleasure. They acquire a secular meaning, but at the same time their connection with the sacred space of temples is lost.

Keywords: sculpture, temple, museum, exhibition space, exhibition

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/48-57


Peculiarities of Anti-Chinese Immigration Legislation in the United States (mid- XIX – mid-XX centuries)

Looking at contemporary U.S. policy on multiculturalism, efforts to achieve ethnic diversity and respect for natives of other countries, it is hard to imagine that in the XIXth and XXth centuries American society was far from today's ideals. This article examines numerous U.S. immigration acts and laws from 1849 to 1949: from the California Gold Rush era to the end of World War II and the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The author studies the works of American scholars on this issue. The article vividly demonstrates changes in U.S. policy toward Chinese natives depending on internal and external circumstances, and analyzes the push and pull factors that influenced Chinese immigration. The author pays special attention to the similarities and differences in the mechanisms of sociocultural adaptation of European and Chinese immigrants to the realities of the host community, cites little-known historical facts of racial segregation in the USA. The article might be interesting to students and scholars specializing in Asian and American studies.

Keywords: United States, China, Chinese, immigration, migrants, legislation, restrictions, diaspora, segregation, multiculturalism

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/58-69

Ivan Yu. ZUENKO, Dmitry G. SELTSER

Cadres Decide Everything: Reform of Cadre System in China in late 1980s – early 1990s

The article is dedicated to the analysis of the cadre system reform in China in late 1980s – early 1990s that was implemented as a part of wider ‘reforms and opening up’ policy. The cadre system reform (first of all, Provisional Regulations on State Civil Servants, 1993) managed to improve recruiting, indoctrination and functions of Chinese bureaucracy. The reform brought start to the practices of enrolment exams, rotation of leadership and hierarchy system of administrative ranks. All these measures became one of key factors of maintaining and strengthening of China’s partocracy regime in 1990s, which contrasted with crisis in international communism movement and collapse of the Soviet Union and its Communist Party. The success of these measures conducted in the framework of the experimental reform led to adopting Civil Servants Law in 2005, which was fully based on previous Provisional Regulations on State Civil Servants.

Keywords: China, cadre system, reform, perestroika, civil service, partocracy

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/70–77

Leonid E. KOZLOV

South Korean Historical Science on the Northeast Project of the PRC

The article reviews several publications that analyze and criticize the so-called Northeast Project. It was a program of research on the history and modernity of Northeast China in 2002–2007, carried out by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences with the support of the PRC government. Its purpose was to bolster China’s historical rights to Manchuria. In the Republic of Korea, this project was sharply criticized for fitting the modern ethno-national theory of the PRC to ancient ethnic groups and states. Korean-Chinese contradictions over the history of Kojoseon, Puyo, Koguryo, and Bohai remain highly politicized. Therefore a comprehensive study of the ancient history of the Northeast of China, the Korean Peninsula and the South of the Russian Far East will face difficulties for a long time. South Korean researchers consider the ancient states of the PRC’s Northeast an integral part of the history of Korea and agree to "share" with China only in order to recognize the presence of other ethnic groups and close ties of these countries with the core of the Chinese civilization.

Keywords: Northeast Project, Republic of Korea, China, politics of history, Kojoseon, Puyo, Koguryo, Bohai

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/78-90


Ruins in the Post-Soviet Far East: "Creative Destruction" or "Slow Violence"?

The authors investigate the mechanisms of the emergence of ruins in the Russian Far East in the late XX – early XXI centuries. If the destruction of Soviet enterprises can to a certain extent be explained by the transformational crisis and "creative destruction", then the degradation of the technical and social infrastructure is interpreted within the framework of the theory of authoritarian modernization. In addition, the article analyzes the long-term consequences of the lives of people in ghettoized settlements, among the ruins, using the ethnography of "slow violence". The authors are introduced into scientific circulation such historical sources as field research materials and works of art of Far Eastern writers and artists. These sources clearly show how local residents survive among the physical ruins on the ruins of their plans and hopes in the peripheral territories of this region.

Keywords: Russian Far East, post-Soviet period, ruins, authoritarian modernization, slow violence, survival practices


DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/91–98


Acoustic Dimension Textualization Techniques in Chinese Poetry of the 1950s through 1970s

The paper presents an attempt to describe various methods of inscribing the audial into contemporary Chinese poetic text, which were widely used in poetry of the 1950s–1970s, at the peak of popular declamation during the period of its active regulation. An analysis of these texts makes it possible to see some general trends in the evolution of "New Poetry" (xin shi) towards a revival of certain techniques and characteristics of various forms of traditional verse, and to assess the relations of the oral and the written in a Chinese poetic text composed and articulated using contemporary diction. The author addresses such properties as the abundant use of interrogative sentences, including rhetorical questions; the employment of a large number of emphatic constructions that function as markers of the auditory orientation of the text; the frequent application of formulaic expressions, clichés and all sorts of quotes and the tendency to exploit a "nomination strategy" based upon rhetoric ascending series.

Keywords: Chinese poetry, contemporary poetry, poetic recitation, poetic discourse, "written" vs. "oral", phonic realization, organization of poetic text


DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/99–111


Chinese transnational corporations participation in the implementation of the Digital Silk Road initiative on the example of Central Asian countries

Assessments of the drivers of the Belt and Road (BRT) have often focused on the emerging political, economic ties between China and the rest of the world, strengthening the country's integration into international institutions, or building traditional "hard" infrastructure (railroads and ports). However, developments concerning the digital or "soft" aspects of BRT have tended to be overlooked. Therefore, this paper emphasizes the role of the Digital Silk Road (DSR) in analyzing how China uses economic state management in its initiatives to achieve technological superpower status. It is argued that the DSR demonstrates a distinctive model of state-business interaction in which Chinese companies participate in the realization of the country's ideals. One manifestation of this appears to be the presence of Chinese companies in Central Asia. The author believes that the reasons for investing in the region are political rather than economic.

Keywords: Foreign policy, China in Central Asia, Digital Silk Road, public-private partnership, state-owned transnational corporations

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/112-122


Crisis in Kazakhstan: preliminary results, analysis of causes, reactions of foreign partners

The authors, having studied the assessment of the prerequisites, causes and nature of the political crisis of the beginning of 2022 in Kazakhstan, came to the conclusion that the interim results include the strengthening of the position of the incumbent president and his chosen course for the complete completion of the transit of power. The analysis of the events, the degree of organization and coordination of the forces involved indicates that if the protest was not artificially created by "groups from outside", then certain political forces attempted to use the current situation in order to unbalance the existing political system in the country. In addition, the events in Kazakhstan in their significance go far beyond national borders and the stability of the current political regime in the republic depends not only on the ability of the authorities to solve economic and social problems, but also on the willingness to answer questions of concern from international partners with their further actions.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, political crisis, Central Asia, CSTO, Tokayev

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/123-131

Artyom L. LUKIN, LI Yonghui,  Irina B. KEIDUN

The current state and prospects of the Russia-China bilateral cooperation in the Arctic

The authors examine Russia’s and China’s Arctic policies and analyze the current state and the prospects of the Russia-China interaction in the Arctic region. Beginning from around the mid-2010s, Russia and China have substantially stepped up their mutually beneficial interaction in the Arctic, with the Yamal LNG and Artcic LNG-2 projects being the main material results of this partnership. One of the factors pushing Russia for closer Arctic cooperation with China has been continued deterioration of Moscow’s relations with the West. That China has shown willingness to respect Russia’s special rights and interests in the Arctic also plays a role in Moscow’s readiness for closer Arctic cooperation with Beijing. It can be confidently predicted that in the foreseeable future Russo-Chinese collaboration in the Arctic will continue to expand and deepen, reflecting the general trend of the trengthening of Sino-Russian strategic ties. It cannot be ruled out that the Russia-China partnership in the Arctic region will over time acquire some military-political aspects. It is also quite possible that in the next editions of their respective national Arctic doctrines Russia and China will mutually declare each other as privileged partners in the Arctic.

Keywords: international relations in the Arctic, Russia-China relations, the Arctic, the Northern Sea Route, the Polar Silk Road

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/132-143

Viktoriya A. DENISENKO

Russia and China: cooperation in the electric power sector

The article is dedicated to the analysis of modern status of Sino-Russian cooperation in electric power supply industry, and the prospects of its development in the Russian Far East. The experience of the two-country interaction in this sphere has been dealt with; data characterizing energy generation and consumption in China and Far Eastern districts of the Russian Federation, have been quoted. The necessity to extend Sino – Russian partnership has been deduced, with emphasis on renovation and construction of new infrastructural facilities, as well as upgrading of power equipment of the Far Eastern Federal district.

Keywords: Sino-Russian relations; China; Russian Far East; electricity export; energy consumption, power generation; renewable energy sources

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/144-155


The functioning of political communication in the PRC and the United States in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

This article examines the functioning of the model of political communication in the People's Republic of China and the United States of America using the example of a situation caused by the rapid spread of coronavirus infection, when the authorities of both states were forced to introduce a quarantine regime in the most epidemiologically disadvantaged areas – in Wuhan and New York respectively. Also considered are the actions in crisis conditions of the three main elements of political communication – power structures, the media and civil society. The time frame is set depending on when the restrictive measures were introduced in a particular state. Thus, for the situation in the People's Republic of China, January was taken as a period of one month, and March was taken for the situation in the United States of America.

Keywords: political communication, digitalization, civil society, media, political institutions

DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/156-171


Border checkpoints as a Chinese instrument for strengthening economic and political cooperation with North Korea. Part 2

The article examines China's activity in the development of checkpoints with the DPRK in 2001–2020 years, which correlated with gradual growth of the volume of freight traffic between countries in studied period and increase in China's share in North Korea's foreign trade. Mainly based on Chinese sources, the article provides an overview of the checkpoints between the PRC and the DPRK. The result of the work is the conclusion that intensive and advanced development of Chinese-North Korean checkpoints has become an important element of PRC's border policy, which ensured the dominant role of Beijing in the foreign economic of DPRK. It was found that during the deterioration of economic and political relations of the DPRK with Russia, South Korea and Japan, China intensively modernized checkpoints with North Korea along the whole border line. This activity played important role in the formation of China as a key foreign trade partner of the DPRK. This thesis is proved by considering the progress of modernization in 2001–2020 for each Chinese-North Korean checkpoint, and an assessment of the development of border crossing systems between countries.

Keywords: China, North Korea, checkpoint, freight turnover, export, import


DOI: 10.24866/2542-1611/2022-1/172-179

Alexander S. DYBOVSKY, Arina D. BYKONIA, Alisa N. EROSHKINA, Veronika V. KARELINA, Roman Yu. KIBA, Alexander N. KOLGANOV, Ilya A. KRASYUCHENKO, Anastasia A. PICHUGINA

On the publication of student’s translations of poetry of a Japanese writer, translator and poet M. Tawara